Does It Pay To Cheat?

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For some birds, trying to cheat your neighbors into raising your babies is just as much work - and is no more successful - than doing it yourself.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Life history strategy: How organisms allocate energy usage to maximize offspring.
Parental Investment: Any non-genetic contributions by parents to help their offspring survive.
Brood Parasites: Organisms that rely on others to raise their young.
Mafia Behavior: The practice of repeatedly visiting victims to make sure they are complying.
Fecundity: The number of offspring produced by an individual over time.

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CREDITS
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Cameron Duke | Script Writer
David Goldenberg | Editor and Narrator
Henry Reich | Director
Josh Taira | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

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REFERENCES
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Antonson, Nick. (2020). Personal Communication. School of Integrative Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Bibby, C. J. (1978). Some breeding statistics of Reed and Sedge Warblers. Bird Study, 25(4), 207–222.

Davies, N. B., & Brooke, M. D. L. (1989). An Experimental Study of Co-Evolution between the Cuckoo, Cuculus canorus, and its Hosts. II. Host Egg Markings, Chick Discrimination and General Discussion. Journal of Animal Ecology, 58(1), 225–236.

Fecundity of the Brown-Headed Cowbird in Southern Ontario on JSTOR. (2020). #metadata_info_tab_contents

Graveland, J. (1999). Effects of Reed Cutting on Density and Breeding Success of Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpacaeus and Sedge Warbler A. schoenobaenus. Journal of Avian Biology, 30(4), 469.

Hoover, J. P., & Robinson, S. K. (2007). Retaliatory mafia behavior by a parasitic cowbird favors host acceptance of parasitic eggs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(11), 4479–4483.

Kilner, R. M. (2003). How selfish is a cowbird nestling? Animal Behaviour, 66(3), 569–576.

Krüger, O. (2006). Cuckoos, cowbirds and hosts: adaptations, trade-offs and constraints. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 362(1486), 1873–1886.

Long, R. (1975). Mortality of Reed Warblers in Jersey. Ringing & Migration, 1(1), 28–32.

Oddmund Kleven, Arne Moksnes, Eivin Røskaft, & Honza, M. (2004, August 26). Breeding success of common cuckoos Cuculus canorus parasitising four sympatric species of ResearchGate; Wiley.

The Ecology of Avian Brood Parasitism | Learn Science at Scitable. (2010). #:~:text=Avian%20brood%20parasitism%2C%20or%20the,the%20host%20(Davies%202000)
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